- Matthew Lipman Philosopy Programme
- Programme that is prepared for the children by the Matthew Lipman, that is practiced in about 50 countries across the world, which contains variety of education techniques.
- Brain Storming
- Brain Storming technique is developed by A. Osburne. It is a strong team work technique that is aimed at gaining creative problem solving skills. Participants express their idea freely to solve a problem through creative thinking and imagination. The main goal is to make student create ideas and express them. It is used as a high-level debate technique.
- Micro Method
- Micro method consists of observation of the student for a while, recording of the observation, transfer of observations to the student, identification of the mistakes and education about the toic with “TeachReteach” method until the student reaches the desired level. It is used actively in “Psychomotor behavior education”, and the number of students, learning time, topics are reduced to micro level.
- Fish Bone Technique
- It is found by K. Iskawa. It is a technique that is used to define the problems causes and their sub-causes. It makes student think deeply and organize the incidents and relations, connections. It makes student search together with respect for the causes of the incidents, put diffirent views, and think about them.
- Method that is taught by the discussion of conflicting ideas within respect and regulation.
- Technique of reproduction, is a technique that is done by the designing of an event, situation, object or an activity in teaching environment. Reproduction is designed to provide possibility to learn by living by creating real-like conditions for an event. It provides experience to students to be prepared for real events. It aims to teach children in a safe environment about what they should do when they are in a real life event.
- Sokrathes Method
- In this course which is carried in Q&A style, it is aimed to make students gain skills like critical thinking, rememberance, reasoning, creativity, speaking, questioning.
- It is a demonstration technique that is designed to make student learn, learn to be interesting, increase the working standarts, and be both visual and auditory.
- Learning games
- Learning games are effective method to improve artistic, aesthetic, physical and mental skills , and make learning and life pleasurable .Topic is transformed into a game so it is interesting, easy to learn and enjoyable.
- Case study
- A learning method that researches deeply by investigating the details of an event, a person’s old life, environment, files etc.
- 5 e ve 7e Model
- 5 e model is a teaching model that makes student use the knowledge and skills that she or he has effectively, improves the research curiousty of the student and answers the expectations of the student. 7 e model is an imporved version of 5 e model.
- Mutually defending the conflicting ideas about any topic .
- It is the most effective way to let students learn by living. It has positive effects such as; enjoying the work, increasing talking skill, increasing creativity, increasing confidence, becoming a better speaker.
- Six Hat Thinking Tecnique
- It is a group of education technique that is used to improve creative thinking. It provides better critical and versatile thinking capabilities. It is a method that an event is not handled by only one of its aspects, but rather many of its aspects. It keeps the student away from getting stuck on one aspect. In this method, found 6 hats with diffirence colours, and each hat presents an aspect. Students puts each hat one by one and express their ideas, so they learn to approach events in diffirent angles. Red hat : Represents the emotional reaction in intuition based events. Black hat : Takes critical and pessimistic approach to the events.Yellow hat : Takes a optimistic approach to the events. Green hat : Tries to find a new and creative point of view. Blue hat : Tries to see the all aspects of an event and tries to keep variables under control.
- Coaching Method
- Method to be companion to the child who needs improvement help.
- Sociodrama (rol play)
- Sociodrama is interpretation of situations which the participants have common interest.
- Multiple İntelligences
For many years the topic that has been talked about most, is the “Intelligence”. What is intelligence, who has it at which level, things that effects the intelligence positively or negatively and how to improve it, is a subject of curiosity and discussion for ages. If we consider that academical education and success has become the most important topic today, the potential of intelligence at the children has become the most important part of the topic. All these aside, after discussed for years about “what is intelligence” finally a result and notion that everyone agrees on has been found. Now we know, intelligence is a really complex system that can not be defined by one or two sentences, and many things we thought we knew about intelligence are not that true. We understood that there is no numeral or verbal intelligence,
And it is a situation that consists of several diffirent individual fields. Otherwise we would not be able to explain how a musician who is not good at math even though music comprehends math, can be so good at music, or how can a person who is not good verbally can have such high scientific capacity.
Thanks to Howard Gardner, a learnin psychologist that marked the last 30 years with his work, the definition of intelligence is changed. Gardner proves that intelligence does not have only one dimension, that we can not think of it as verbal or numerical intelligence, and it must be considered in many dimensions. According to Gardner, if a person can produce a product, can find effective solutions to problems, that person is intelligent and we must look at the intelligence in a way that is diffirent that we already do. And as these fields can be related to many diffirent parts of life,it is wrong to try to fit people in one or two standard definitions.
These works of Gardner has seen a lot of interest by whole world, and became and accepted reality in the topic of intelligence. Now we know that each individual has diffirent talents and an intelligence field that he belongs to. And so Gardner defines intelligence as:
Intelligence is the capabilitiy of being able to solve the problems and create new products in life on the face of new and diffirent situations and events. So intelligence is collective of personal talents and skills of each individual that he owns and uses to fit in this ever-changing world. At the end intelligence is our capacity to do good to our community and present beneficial products to it.
Multiple intelligences was defined under 7 types of intelligence, but later at 1995, another type of intelligence was added and now is defined with 8 types of intelligences. Gardner is lately working on the 9th intelligence which he calls existential intelligence.
Principles of Multiple intelligences
Firstly it is good to know the principles of multiple intelligences:
- Human intelligences can be defines, improved and measured. - All theories and scientific studies support the theory of multiple intelligences, and accept it.
- On a study that is about one intelligence, we can benefit from other intelligences. .
-There is possibility that there are other intelligences diffirent that the ones we already know and define. Factors such as personal traits, environment, believes, judgements effect the development of the intelligence.
- Intelligence is made of diffirence processes and each type of intelligence is dynamic.
- Each individual has their own abilities and intelligence is specific to each individual.
- Each person has diffirent intelligence developement. - Each intelligence should be considered alone. The structure of intelligence occurs with the effects of diffirent factors such as attention, memory, perception, problem solving.
Types of multiple intelligence and their properties
This type of intelligence consist of very complicated skills such as understanding the complicated meanings in language, valuation, poetry reading, fluent story telling, finding similar words and using them, abstract thinking, understanding symbolic statements, using the language correctly and effectly with the right grammer. A person with this type of intelligence, understands what she or he reads easly, remembers easly, understands the main topic easly and expresses it correctly. If trained well, has great oratory skill. Uses the language well, has good verbal communication skills, can impress people infront of her or him, can mimic other people and their speeches. Does not really enjoy noisy places,. Enjoys reading. People with this kind of intelligence can be writers, poets, linguists, lawyers and politicians.
Visual - Spatial Intelligence
It wouldn’t be wrong to call this type of intelligence “abilitiy to think with eyes”. Characteristics of this intelligence are thinking with shapes, symbols and imagery, using eyes to persept environment, interpretation of three dimentional objects from their two dimention images. Person with Visual-Spatial intelligence can visualize everything she or he learned in her or his mind by turning them to concrete visual images in her or his mind. Can catch the details of objects that many people won’t, by persiving the perspectives from diffirent angles. Can visualize everything in his or her mind. Imagines a lot and can easly understand systems such as maps, tables. Sense of direction is highly developed. Likes design, drawing and images. Likes visual presentations and can work with those. Always tries to take notes when studying. Does not like long presentations without visual material. People with this kind of intelligence can be painter, photographer, engineer, architect, designer, visual artist or guide.
Bodily - Kinesthetic Intelligence
It is know that people who express themselves with mimics, body movements, hand gestures, who uses brain and body coordination belongs to this group. These people touches objects to understand, define them. They are highly successful at fields that needs physical talent. They show remarkable success at sports and dance. Uses the body correctly, and shows high performance. Generally interested in few sports or activities at the same time. Being really physicly active, remembers what is done rather than what is told. Responsible and sensitive to his or her environment. Has high skill, balance and aesthetic in physical work. Active in fields such as sports, dance, roleplay and his skills can be seen quite easily. They are interested and attentative about healthy living. They use bodily and mental harmony in each learning. People with bodily, kinesthetic intelligence can be sportsman, dancer, actor, artist or sculptor.
Logical - Mathematical Intelligence
The thinking language of people with this kind of intelligence is all about numbers, symbols and ciphers. Their skills in topics such as creating abstract procedures from concrete procedures, problem solving, making logical connections, reasoning, causation are high developed. They can connect the dots easily, and assemble. They are generally really curious and ask a lot of questions. Mind games are their favourite thing and they are quite good at them. They like mathematics and experimenting. They are skilled in reasoning from abstract consepts and numbers to reach the results. They like to work with images, shapes , tables and graphics. They have critical and questioning way of thinking. People with this
kind of intelligence can be mathematicians, engineers, architects, statistics, economists, scientiests, computer specialists and so on.
People with verbal or non verbal communication skills belong to this group. They are especially good with teamwork, and they are really good at social and communication fields like understanding people’s emotions, ideas and attitudes, expressing themselves, empathy. People with social intelligence are great speech givers, and they are sensitive to emotions of people they are facing. They are good observers. They are good at persuasion. They take attention to themselves as they are good with humour. They have large friend networks, and they like to keep the attention. They are good at adapting to environment they are in, and they like to be in diffirent environments. They are interested in other cultures. They like teamwork, and sharing. They like to manage and organize, and they are good at those fields. People with this kind of intelligence can be good; teachers, guides, politicians, consultants,psychologists, management and organization professionals.
A person’s ability to know self, being aware, and being himself/herself is defined as their internal intelligence. One takes strong steps towards defining her or his goals, and pays attention to self development. Pays close attention to both events happening around and the personal events and tries to give meaning to them. Thinking is everything for them. They are independence and they like to work alone. They are aware of themselves and they value themselves, and expects the same attention from other people too. They are more introverted. They have their own goals and those goals are also the source of their motivation. They can perform well as writers, social service professionals, business person, painter, artists or sculptor.
As it can be understood from its name, these people are very curious and respecting against nature and creatures in the nature.They like to work in fields such as researching,and questioning and getting the know creatures of the nature. They try to interrelate between the diffirence species in the nature. Wonders about the existence of humans, and tries to learn about it. Can learn creatures names and restore in their mind easily. They like travels related to nature and would like to be part of research activities. Wonders about the effects of nature on human activities and studies them. Likes to watch documentaries. Have special interest in animal and plants. They are environmental and have responsible. They like to classify they living and non-living things around them, and they are interested, curous and sensitive about them. People with these skills can choose any profession that is related to nature. Botany, mountaineering, chemistry, biology, zoology, meteorology, geology, archeology, medicine, photography, scouting are few of the examples.
Musical - Rhythmic Intelligence
People with skills in sounds, notes, rhythm and music are known to relate to this type of intelligence. People with rhythmic intelligence are sensitive to all sounds of the environment, especially to human sounds. They are interested in everything that has to do with music and sounds. They definitely would like to play a musical instrument. It is possible to witness people with this intelligence that they are capable of playing an instrument, even without taking any lessons about it. They are especially talented in one of few fields of music. They can understand a music that they don’t know the notes, and go with the rhythm. They can mix movement and music to create figures. Their memory of songs and poems are rather developed. They are curious about music and diffirent cultures. They react to too noisy environments. They can pick professions such as singer, composer, music critic, conducter, musician etc.
Besides all these types of intelligences, there is one more type of intelligence that came out to be discussed in last years:
According to reading intelligence, it is possible to improve the human intelligence and types of intelligence by words. More a person gets the reading habit, his or her relation with the diffirent types of intelligence will improve as also his or her intelligence will improve.
As we know, human brain consists of billions of cells that are called neurons. These are cells that comes with the birth, but they are not active. According to the reading intelligence theory, as the connections between these neurons increase and speed up, these cells will become active and we will start to use a higher capacity of our brains. The way to do it comes from having a healty reading habit. Also according to this theory, the better a person speaks and understand his own language, his success in other fields will improve. A person who can ready and understand his own language well, can be successful in all intelligence types, even though he or she has diffirence abilities and predispositions.